70% of the global population are non-white. Should we not expect the teaching body of an international school to reflect this demography? Many international schools hire locally, and often this factor means that perhaps half of the teaching staff will originate from the host country, and this inevitably has a significant effect on the percentage of teachers by race and ethnicity that they employ, but what about the foreign hires? Are 70% of these non-whites? Of course not. Nearly all foreign hires made by international schools are Caucasian, and overwhelming they are recruited from the USA, Canada, UK, Ireland, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa. Many job adverts even specify that a prospective teacher should have qualified in one of these countries, and have experience of working in one of them. This automatically excludes millions of potential applications from non-white people. Yes, there is a significant percentage of non-white people in the seven countries that are always listed, but with the exception of South Africa, each of the countries has a population where by far the largest ethnic group is Caucasian. Why is this the case?
International schools have mission statements that embrace global citizenship, promote inclusion, reject discrimination and profess international mindedness, and yet they rarely hire Black or Asian foreign teachers. Of course, there are exceptions, and I’m sure I will have some more progressive school leaders who will point out that the breakdown of their staffing profile is more reflective of an international community, but they will recognise that their hiring practices are not the norm in the sector.
Hiring practices in international schools are usual an overspill from the institutionalised racism that school leaders have inherited from their countries of origin. Most of these biases are unconscious and therein lies the heart of the problem. Those of us who’ve grown up in predominantly Caucasian societies, often in an era when the world was less sensitized to racism and discrimination, have been socialised into a particular way of thinking. But these factors can never be used as an excuse for prejudicial hiring practices, as most school leaders profess to be lifelong learners and reject the idea of a fixed mindset. There are many courses available for HR Managers and School Leaders focused on cultural sensitivity, diversity and awareness, and leaders in education should consider availing of these opportunities. For the children in an international school to be genuinely internationally-minded and gain a global perspective, they need teachers as role models from across the globe. It is not enough to “teach about” the issues!
By looking at hiring practices from South Africa, we can see the extent of the problem of racist hiring practices in the international education sector. Over 90% of South Africans hired in the international sector are white, whilst whites make up about 10% of the country’s population. Moreover, the overwhelming majority of teachers working in schools in South Africa are black. Why then are schools so reluctant to hire black South African teachers? Black South African teachers will have studied in the same educational system, and in many cases attended the same schools as their white colleagues. Many of them will then have worked alongside white colleagues in South African schools. Most black teachers will indeed work in government schools, but if one looks at the staffing of a school in the independent sector then one will note that in most schools the majority of teachers are black. For some reason though, these black teachers are rarely hired by international schools, whilst at the same time, there are thousands of white South Africans working in such schools across the world. Some might suggest that the reason for this is since white South Africans are native English speakers, whereas their black countrymen and women speak English as an Additional Language. This is nonsense. Many white South Africans will speak Afrikaans as their first language, and English as an additional language. This is no different from a black South African who grows up speaking Zulu, Xhosa, or Setswana in their home, but learns through the medium of English at school, and speaks English daily in their community. Many black South Africans have better spoken and written English than their white neighbours. This is not in any way to diminish the valuable contributions that white South Africans make to the international education sector. South African teachers are almost always well qualified and adapt easily to the international sector. I just wonder why the international education sector predominantly only hires white South Africans?
Why are so few African teachers employed in international schools per se? 13% of the world’s population is from one of the 54 countries on the continent of Africa, but how many African teachers are employed in international schools? Standards of English are pheromonally high across the continent and many Africans effectively speak English as a first language, sometimes even in the home. Many parents raise their children through the medium of English, in a believe that empowers the child and increases their chances of succeeding at school, and subsequently in the world of work. The people of Uganda, Zambia, South Africa, Zimbabwe, Nigeria, Kenya, Botswana, Malawi, Ghana and Rwanda are exceptional levels of English, and teachers from these countries should be eminently employable in international schools. Scandalously, many schools would rather employ a non-qualified or under-qualified teacher from a ‘western” country than consider hiring a qualified and experienced teacher from Sub Saharan Africa. If parents were to dig a little deeper, they would be shocked by the numbers of unqualified teachers working in the international sector. It sometimes seems that “whiteness” is the key to securing a job in the sector. Why else do schools and recruitment agencies request photographs of candidates for jobs? Furthermore, many schools in Sub Saharan Africa offer Cambridge International (CAIE) or IB programmes, and thus teachers who work in the schools have the necessary experiences required for immigration officials in order to be granted a visa. I do appreciate that the visa issue is sometimes a genuine issue for schools, but more often it’s an excuse rather than a genuine reason. And I refer you back to my thoughts on South Africa!
I am wary of promoting a brain drain and recognise that the best African teachers are needed in their own countries. However, many from across the continent seek short to medium term employment in an international school and are likely to return home to work in their own country. Moreover, if we take Nigeria as an example, 6.7% of GDP was made up of international remittances in 2007. In fact, across Sub Saharan Africa, those working internationally contribute significantly to the economies of their home countries through the money sent to relatives through services such as Western Union. The extended family of an African teacher is thus likely to benefit from one of their relatives securing a position in an international school. Africa is my point of reference, as I have had the experience of working on the continent, but I am aware that the same issues apply to countries in the Caribbean too, where again there are exceptional standards of English on many of the islands, but little opportunities for teachers from the Caribbean to work in the international sector.
Some school leaders will quietly tell you that they are reluctant to recruit more non-white teachers due to the expectations of the parents. I find this reasoning abhorrent. School leaders have an obligation to educate their parent community, and if the best person for a role is Black or Asian, then they should be hired. Increasing diversity among the teaching staff brings great benefits for the students for the reasons I explained earlier. In parts of Asia, it isn’t uncommon to see job adverts for teachers stipulating that the teacher should be “White/Caucasian.” School leaders should take the “risk” if that’s how they perceive it and hire more non-white teachers, and as leaders of the wider community bear witness to diversity, inclusion, and international mindedness.
The discriminatory recruitment practices of many international schools are deeper-seated than I have alluded to up to this point. Another question to consider is why are there so few Black or Asian “Western” teachers in the international education sector, and why are so few in leadership positions? Is this because our international schools are mirror images of the “western” countries whose curriculum models they teach? It would seem so. After all, Black and Asian teachers, from “western” countries are hugely underrepresented in the international sector, and perhaps even more so than in their countries of origin. Again, it is perverse, in a sector that proclaims to be enlightened and forward-thinking.
I love working in the international sector, and the good in the sector certainly outweighs the bad, but the sector as a whole needs to address these issues head-on. I look to the Council of International Schools and COBIS to speak out more explicitly on these issues. They do offer many courses to do with cultural sensitivity but do skirt around the issue I have raised. It is easier to be silent.
Please comment on my post and let me know what you think.